Order VIII – Written Statement, Set-Off and Counter Claim

Rule 1: Written statement.—

The defendant shall, within thirty days from the date of service of summons on him, present a written statement of his defence:

Provided that where the defendant fails to file the written statement within the said period of thirty days, he shall be allowed to file the same on such other day, as may be specified by the Court, for reasons to be recorded in writing, but which shall not be later than ninety days from the date of service of summons.

Rule 1-A: Duty of defendant to produce documents upon which relief is claimed or relied upon by him.—

(1) Where the defendant bases his defence upon a document or relies upon any document in his possession or power, in support of his defence or claim for set-off or counter-claim, he shall enter such document in a list, and shall produce it in Court when the written statement is presented by him and shall, at the same time, deliver the document and a copy thereof, to be filed with the written statement.

(2) Where any such document is not in the possession or power of the defendant, he shall, wherever possible, state in whose possession or power it is.

(3) A document which ought to be produced in Court by the defendant under this rule, but, is not so produced shall not, without the leave of the Court, be received in evidence on his behalf at the hearing of the suit.

(4) Nothing in this rule shall apply to documents—

(a) produced for the cross-examination of the plaintiff’s witnesses, or

(b) handed over to a witness merely to refresh his memory.

Rule 2: New facts must be specially pleaded.—

The defendant must raise by his pleading all matters which show the suit not to be maintainable, or that the transaction is either void or voidable in point of law, and all such grounds of defence as, if not raised, would be likely to take the opposite party by surprise, or would raise issues of fact not arising out of the plaint, as, for instance, fraud, limitation, release, payment, performance, or facts showing illegality.

Rule 3: Denial to be specific.—

It shall not be sufficient for a defendant in his written statement to deny generally the grounds alleged by the plaintiff, but the defendant must deal specifically with each allegation of fact of which he does not admit the truth, except damages.

Rule 4: Evasive denial.—

Where a defendant denies an allegation of fact in the plaint, he must not do so evasively, but answer the point of substance. Thus, if it is alleged that he received a certain sum of money, it shall not be sufficient to deny that he received that particular amount, but he must deny that he received that sum or any part thereof, or else set out how much he received. And if an allegation is made with diverse circumstances, it shall not be sufficient to deny it along with those circumstances.

Rule 5: Specific denial.—

(1) Every allegation of fact in the plaint, if not denied specifically or by necessary implication, or stated to be not admitted in the pleading of the defendant, shall be taken to be admitted except as against a person under disability:

Provided that the Court may in its discretion require any fact so admitted to be proved otherwise than by such admission.

(2) Where the defendant has not filed a pleading, it shall be lawful for the Court to pronounce judgment on the basis of the facts contained in the plaint, except as against a person under a disability, but the Court may, in its discretion, require any such fact to be proved.

(4) Whenever a judgment is pronounced under this rule, a decree shall be drawn up in accordance with such judgment and such decree shall bear the date on which the judgment was pronounced.

Rule 6: Particulars of set-off to be given in written statement.—

(1) Where in a suit for the recovery of money the defendant claims to set-off against the plaintiff’s demand any ascertained sum of money legally recoverable by him from the plaintiff, not exceeding the pecuniary limits of the jurisdiction of the Court, and both parties fill the same character as they fill in the plaintiff’s suit, the defendant may, at the first hearing of the suit, but not afterwards unless permitted by the Court, present a written statement containing the particulars of the debt sought to be set-off.

(2) Effect of set-off.—The written statement shall have the same effect as a plaint in a cross-suit so as to enable the Court to pronounce a final judgment in respect both of the original claim and of the set-off, but this shall not affect the lien, upon the amount decreed, of any pleader in respect of the costs payable to him under the decree.

(3) The rules relating to a written statement by a defendant apply to a written statement in answer to a claim of set-off.

Rule 6-A: Counter-claim by defendant.—

(1) A defendant in a suit may, in addition to his right of pleading a set-off under Rule 6, set up, by way of counter-claim against the claim of the plaintiff, any right or claim in respect of a cause of action accruing to the defendant against the plaintiff either before or after the filing of the suit but before the defendant has delivered his defence or before the time limited for delivering his defence has expired, whether such counter-claim is in the nature of a claim for damages or not:

Provided that such counter-claim shall not exceed the pecuniary limits of the jurisdiction of the Court.

(2) Such counter-claim shall have the same effect as a cross-suit so as to enable the Court to pronounce a final judgment in the same suit, both on the original claim and on the counter-claim.

(3) The plaintiff shall be at liberty to file a written statement in answer to the counter-claim of the defendant within such period as may be fixed by the Court.

(4) The counter-claim shall be treated as a plaint and governed by the rules applicable to plaints.

Rule 6-B: Counter-claim to be stated.—

Where any defendant seeks to rely upon any ground as supporting a right of counter-claim, he shall, in his written statement, state specifically that he does so by way of counter-claim.

Rule 6-C: Exclusion of counter-claim.—

Where a defendant sets up a counter-claim and the plaintiff contends that the claim thereby raised ought not to be disposed of by way of counter-claim but in an independent suit, the plaintiff may, at any time before issues are settled in relation to the counter-claim, apply to the Court for an order that such counter-claim may be excluded, and the Court may, on the hearing of such application make such order as it thinks fit.

Rule 6-D: Effect of discontinuance of suit.—

If in any case in which the defendant sets up a counter-claim, the suit of the plaintiff is stayed, discontinued or dismissed, and counter-claim may nevertheless be proceeded with.

Rule 6-E: Default of plaintiff to reply to counter-claim.—

If the plaintiff makes default in putting in a reply to the counter-claim made by the defendant, the Court may pronounce judgment against the plaintiff in relation to the counter-claim made against him, or make such order in relation to the counter-claim as it thinks fit.

Rule 6-F: Relief to defendant where counter-claim succeeds.—

Where in any suit a set-off or counter-claim is established as a defence against the plaintiff’s claim, and any balance is found due to the plaintiff or the defendant, as the case may be, the Court may give judgment to the party entitled to such balance.

Rule 6-G: Rules relating to written statement to apply.—

The rules relating to a written statement by a defendant shall apply to a written statement filed in answer to a counter-claim.

Rule 7: Defence or set-off founded upon separate grounds.—

Where the defendant relies upon several distinct grounds of defence or set-off or counter-claim founded upon separate and distinct facts, they shall be stated, as far as may be, separately and distinctly.

Rule 8: New ground of defence.—

Any ground of defence which has arisen after the institution of the suit or the presentation of a written statement claiming a set-off or counter-claim may be raised by the defendant or plaintiff, as the case may be, in his written statement.

Rule 8-A: Duty of defendant to produce documents upon which relief is claimed by him.— Omitted by Act 46 of 1999, S. 18 (w.e.f. 1-7-2002)

Rule 9: Subsequent pleadings.—

No pleading subsequent to the written statement of a defendant other than by way of defence to set-off or counter-claim shall be presented except by the leave of the Court and upon such terms as the Court thinks fit; but the Court may at any time require a written statement or additional written statement from any of the parties cut and fix a time of not more than thirty days for presenting the same.

Rule 10: Procedure when party fails to present written statement called for by Court.—

Where any party from whom a written statement is required under Rule 1 or Rule 9 fails to present the same within the time permitted or fixed by the Court, as the case may be, the Court shall pronounce judgment against him, or make such order in relation to the suit as it thinks fit and on the pronouncement of such judgment a decree shall be drawn up.


1. What is Written Statement and why is it allowed to be filed?

Sumtibai v. Paras Finance Co. Regd. Partnership Firm Beawer (Raj.), (2007) 10 SCC 82:Every party in a case has a right to file a written statement. This is in accordance with natural justice. The Civil Procedure Code is really the rules of natural justice which are set out in great and elaborate detail. Its purpose is to enable both parties to get a hearing…….”

2. Necessary contents of the Written Statement in view of Evidence Act

Catarina Fernandes v. Jose Menino Rodrigues, (2013) 1 Mah LJ 367 : “……Rules 3, 4 and 5 of Order VIII of Civil Procedure Code deal with the manner in which allegations of the fact in the plaint should be dealt with and legal consequences follow from non-compliance, thereof. The written statement must deal specifically with each allegation of fact in the plaint and when the defendant denies such fact, he must not do so evasively, but specifically and unambiguously. If his denial of the fact is not specific but evasive, the said fact can be taken to be admitted and in such an event the admission, being proved, no other proof is necessary…..”

3. Legal and Equitable Set-off

Union of India v. Karam Chand Thapar and Bros. (Coal Sales) Ltd., (2004) 3 SCC 504: “What the rule deals with is legal set-off. The claim sought to be set off must be for an ascertained sum of money and legally recoverable by the claimant. What is more significant is that both the parties must fill the same character in respect of the two claims sought to be set off or adjusted. Apart from the rule enacted in Rule 6 abovesaid, there exists a right to set-off, called equitable, independently of the provisions of the Code. Such mutual debts and credits or cross-demands, to be available for extinction by way of equitable set-off, must have arisen out of the same transaction or ought to be so connected in their nature and circumstances as to make it inequitable for the court to allow the claim before it and leave the defendant high and dry for the present unless he files a cross-suit of his own. When a plea in the nature of equitable set-off is raised it is not done as of right and the discretion lies with the court to entertain and allow such plea or not to do so.”

4. Additional Written Statement

AS. S. Rm. Swaminathan Chettiar v. E.M. Chock Alingam Chettiar, 1964 SCC OnLine Mad 192 : “To take up for consideration the question whether the trial Court could have allowed the application for additional written statement put forward a ground of defence which has arisen after the institution of the suit, I need refer only to O. 8, R. 8, C.P.C., which provides that any ground of defence which has arisen after the institution of the suit or the presentation of a written statement claiming a set-off may be raised by the defendant or plaintiff, as the case may be, in his written statement. That shows that the defendant is not precluded from raising in his written statement defences which arise after the institution of the suit. The principles applicable to the amendment of plaints would equally apply to the amendment of the written statements. That the new defence sought to be raised was not convincing to the Court hearing the application will by itself not be a ground for refusing to permit the additional defence. In this case, the order of remand has not imposed any limitations on the scope of the trial; and under O. 6, R. 17, C.P. Code the pleadings could be amended at any stage, and it cannot be disputed that even after remand, the suit continues to be a suit within the meaning of (X 6, R. 17. The trial Court had, in this case, as much soisin of the case after remand as before remand. Imustals to be noted that the application for amendment had been filed long before the trial, and the matter had got adjourned several times. The new defence sought to be made out would be practically on admitted facts, as was apparent from the affidavit and counter affidavit filed in the application, and the trial of the suit would not have been delayed by allowing the additional defence.

5. Can a written statement be filed after expiry of time laid down in Rule 1

Kailash v. Nanhku, (2005) 4 SCC 480: “….In spite of the time-limit appointed by Rule 1 having expired, the court is not powerless to permit a written statement being filed if the court may require such written statement. Under Rule 10, the court need not necessarily pronounce judgment against the defendant who failed to file written statement as required by Rule 1 or Rule 9. The court may still make such other order in relation to the suit as it thinks fit.”

6. Is Rule 1 mandatory or directory in nature?

Kailash v. Nanhku, (2005) 4 SCC 480: “Considering the object and purpose behind enacting Rule 1 of Order 8 in the present form and the context in which the provision is placed, we are of the opinion that the provision has to be construed as directory and not mandatory. In exceptional situations, the court may extend the time for filing the written statement though the period of 30 days and 90 days, referred to in the provision, has expired. However, we may not be misunderstood as nullifying the entire force and impact — the entire life and vigour — of the provision. The delaying tactics adopted by the defendants in law courts are now proverbial as they do stand to gain by delay. This is more so in election disputes because by delaying the trial of election petition, the successful candidate may succeed in enjoying the substantial part, if not in its entirety, the term for which he was elected even though he may lose the battle at the end. Therefore, the judge trying the case must handle the prayer for adjournment with firmness. The defendant seeking extension of time beyond the limits laid down by the provision may not ordinarily be shown indulgence.”